To begin:

What is a QUOTATION?

What is a SUMMARY?


Integrating Quotes and creating



As you explore a formal feature of an essay, you will support your argument by referring specifically to lines in the text using quotes.   When integrating an EXAMPLE, EVIDENCE, or QUOTE into your own writing, you can use the PIE system to ensure that the ideas blend in smoothly.  This is not as easy as it may seem, because in order to incorporate writing that is not your own into your essay, you need to prepare the reader.

An in-text citation has two parts:  


There are five techniques for integrating a quotation smoothly into your paper and documenting its source.


1.  Cite the author’s last name and the page number(s) of the source in parentheses.

One historian argues that since the invention of television “our politics religion, news, athletics, education and commerce have transformed into congenial adjuncts of show business, largely without protest or even much popular notice” (Postman 3-4). 

2.    The smoothest solution is to use the quotation as part of your sentence:

James Thurber claims that to tell a good story you have to "throw furniture around" (176).


Morison points out that social context prevented the authors of slave narratives “from dwelling too long or too carefully on the more sordid details of their experience” (109).

3.      Another option is to use a lead-in:

As James Thurber tells us, "the situation was finally put together like a giant jigsaw puzzle" (181).


In “The Site of Memory,” Morrison explains how social context shaped slave narratives: 
“The milieu, however, dictated the purpose and the style.  The narratives are instructive, moral and obviously representative” (109). 

In this example, the lead in introduces the name of the essay.  This is generally a good idea at the beginning of your essay when you first mention the text you will be discussing.  However, after this first introduction you can simply refer to the author by their last name.

4.     Another method is to write a sentence that precedes the quotation:

In one of James Thurber's most nostalgic pieces, he remembers his early years:  "I suppose that the high-water mark of my youth in Columbus, Ohio, was the night the bed fell on my father" (176).  

In this example, the colon indicates that an example will follow.

Notice that in each example, the parenthetical page citation and the period, come after the quotes.  

5.    Occasionally, but rarely, you will need to use a long quotation.  If your quotation exists of four lines or more, you should indent it, as in the following example:

In the beginning of the story, James Thurber explains his situation by introducing the main source of the family's problems:

We had visiting us at this time a nervous first cousin of mine named Briggs Beal, who believed that he was likely to cease breathing when he fell asleep.  It was his feeling that if he were not awakened every hour during the night, he might die of suffocation. (176)

Note that the quotation marks are not necessary in this example because the indented block form shows that it is a quotation.  


One final thought:  Do Not Over quote.  You will be judged by your own thought and the continuity and development of your essay.   If your essay includes no more than a series of quotes linked together by introductory sentences, what have you really accomplished?   Create your own discussion, and use the quotes to support your ideas.